Caffeine Supplement Review

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Caffeine
  Evaluated for:
Effectiveness Rating Effectiveness Rating
Memory
+3 (Strong Evidence)
Athletic Performance
+3 (Strong Evidence)
Headaches
+2 (Moderate Evidence)

PRO

  • Caffeine is a naturally occurring compound found in the leaves, seeds, or fruits of more than 60 plants, including coffee beans, cacao beans, kola nuts, guarana berries, and tea leaves (including yerba mate and green tea). There is evidence that it improves memory, athletic performance, and headache pain, as well as asthma and possibly diabetes.
  • Caffeine, in human studies, has been shown to be effective for enhancing memory, exercise tolerance, and respiratory function.
  • Caffeine increases the release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, to improve memory. The effect on lung function is similar to that of theophylline, a methylxanthine medication that opens airways.
  • Caffeine improves athletic performance by enhancing muscle metabolism and time to exhaustion.
  • Caffeine is safe for use at levels equivalent to 2 cups of coffee a day.

CON

  • Caffeine-withdrawal headaches are common in individuals who suddenly decrease their intake of coffee and other sources.
  • Caffeine can elevated blood pressures, an effect that may last up to 24 hours.

* *ADVISORY* *
Caffeine can be fatal in extremely high doses of 10-14 grams.

DOSAGE:100-200 mg of caffeine daily (a 6 oz. cup of coffee generally contains 50-100 mg) is considered safe, although higher doses may be required to treat certain conditions. Caffeine, the only stimulant classified as safe and effective by the U.S. FDA, is permitted in over-the-counter analgesics and cold medicines. A maximum of one cup daily is considered safe for pregnant women.

CONCLUSION:We conclude that the evidence Is strong enough to give caffeine a try for memory, exercise performance, and relief of headache pain. It may be helpful as an adjunct to standard asthma therapy, but should never be relied on for sole treatment.

REFERENCES
“Caffeine.” Natural Standard –The Authority on Integrative Medicine. Natural Standard, 2013.
“Caffeine.” Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2013. 8 November 2013.
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Corley, J. et al. Caffeine Consumption and Cognitive Function at Age 70: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 Study. Psychosomatic Medicine (2010) 72:206-214
Norager, C.B. et al. Caffeine improves endurance in 75-year-old citizensl a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Appl Physiol (2005) 99:2302-2306
Norman, D. et al. Caddeine intake is independently associated with neuropsychological performance in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Breath (2008) 12(3):199-205
Drake, C.L. et al. Caffeine Reversal of Ethanol Effects on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test, Memory, and Psychomotor Performance. Neuropsychopharmacology (2003) 28, 371-378
Ritchie, K. et al. Caffeine, cognitive functioning, and white matter lesions in the elderly: establishing causality from epidemiological evidence. J Alzheimers Dis. (2010) 1-9
Goto, A. et al. Coffee and Caffeine Consumption in Relation to Sex Hormone – Binding Globulin and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Postmenopausal Women. Diabetes (2011) 60, 269-275
Michaud, D.S. et al. Coffee and tea intake and risk of brain tumors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr (2010) 92:1145-1150
Larsson, S.C. et al. Coffee Consumption and Risk of Stroke in Women. Stroke (2011) 42:908-912
Song, Y.J. et al. Coffee, Tea, Colas, and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomakers Prev (2008) 17:712-716
Mednick, S.C. et al. Comparing the benefits of Caffeine, Naps and Placebo on Verbal Motor and Perceptual Memory. Behav Brain Res. (2008) 193(1):79-86
Gronroos, N.N., Alonso, A. et al. Diet and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation: Epidemiologic and Clinical Evidence. Circ J. (2010) 74(10):2029-2038
Shen, J. et al. Dietary factors and incident atrial fibrillation: the Framingham Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr (2011) 93:261-266
Wedick, N.M. et al. Effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on biological risk factos for type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition Journal (2011) 10:93
Seifert, S.M. et al. Health Effects of Energy Drinks on Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults. Pediatrics (2011) 127(3):511-528
Haller, C.A. et al. Human pharmacology of a performance-enhancing dietary supplement under resting and exercise conditions. Br J Clin Pharmacol (2008) 65:833-840
Modi, A. et al. Increased caffeine consumption is associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis. Hepatology (2010) 51(1):201-209
Pase, M.P. et al. The effects of dietary and nutrient interventions on arterial stiffness: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr (2011) 93:446-454
Zhou, H. et al. Updates of mTOR inhibitors. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. (2010) 10(7):571-581


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