Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Supplement Review

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Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
  Evaluated for:
Effectiveness Rating Effectiveness Rating
Thiamine Deficiency
+3 (Strong Evidence)
People at risk for Thiamine Deficiency
+1 (Slight Evidence)

PRO

  • Thiamine (vitamin B1) is a water-soluble vitamin and one of the first organic compounds to have been recognized as a vitamin. Dietary sources are essential. Foods rich in thiamine include brewer’s yeast, lentils, beans, nuts, oatmeal, flax, sunflower seeds, brown rice, whole grains, whole grain rye, asparagus, kale, cauliflower, potatoes, oranges, liver, and eggs, among others.
  • Thiamine is involved in numerous cellular processes. These affect nerve and muscle function, enzyme reactions, and even production of hydrochloric acid, necessary for proper digestion.
  • Thiamine is not stored in the body, so depletion can occur quickly, within 14 days. Severe chronic thiamine deficiency, called beriberi, can cause serious injury to the brain and other nerve tissue, heart and other muscles, and gastrointestinal tract. Signs of deficiency are nonspecific, and may include weight loss, irritability, confusion, and malaise. Thiamine deficiency can be fatal if left untreated.
  • Mild thiamine deficiencies are common because they affect many different populations, including those with diabetes, alcoholism, HIV, advanced age, celiac, bariatric surgery, cancer, heart disease, and numerous other medical conditions. Thiamine deficiency is also associated with heart failure.

CON

  • Thiamine supplementation in individuals with low levels of several other B vitamins, mainly pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and niacin (vitamin B3), may cause a potentially life-threatening disease called “pellagra encephalopathy.”
  • Populations at higher risk of this complication include the elderly as well as those with a history of malnutrition or alcohol abuse.
  • High doses of thiamine in individuals with a deficiency may temporarily lower systolic (the upper number) blood pressure levels.

* *ADVISORY* *
None.

DOSAGE:The recommended oral dose for ages 19 years and older is 1.2 mg daily for males, 1.1 mg daily for females, and 1.4 mg daily for pregnant or breastfeeding women.

CONCLUSION:We conclude that thiamine (vitamin B1) is a safe and effective product for the treatment of thiamine deficiency. Remember to include it in your list of medications when you visit your doctor and other health care providers. Take a multivitamin with it to make sure you also get enough B3 and B6.

REFERENCES
“Thiamin.” Natural Standard –The Authority on Integrative Medicine. Natural Standard, 2013.
“Thiamin (Vitamin B1).” Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2013. 8 November 2013.
Oudshoorn, C. et al. Higher Serum Vitamin D3 Levels Are Associated with Better Cognitive Test Performance in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders (2008) 25:539-543
Polizzi, F.C. et al. Increased DNA-Glycation in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: The effect of Thiamine and Pyridoxine Therapy. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes (2012) 120:329-334
Fabian, E. et al. Influence of Probiotic and Conventional Yoghurt on the Status of Vitamins B1, B2, and B6 in Young Healthy Women. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism (2008) 52:29-36
Dunn, S. et al. Nutrition and Heart Failure: Impact of Drug Therapies and Management Strategies. Nutrition in Clinical Practice (2009) 60-75
Leske, M.C. et al. The Lens Opacities Case-Control Study: Risk Factors for Cataract. Arch Ophthalmol (1991)109:244-251
Luong, K., Nguyen, L. et al. Role of Thiamine in Alzheimer’s Disease. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Other Dementias (2011) 26(8): 588-598
Luong K., Nguyen, L. et al. The Impact of Thiamine Treatment in the Diabetes Mellitus. J Clin Med Res (2012) 4(3):153-160
Page, G.L.J. et al. Thiamine deficiency in diabetes mellitus and the impact of thiamine replacement on glucose metabolism and vascular disease. The International Journal of Clinical Practice (2011) 65(6):684-690
Karuppagounder, S. et al. Thiamine deficiency induces oxidative stress and exacerbates the plaque pathology in Alzheimer’s mouse model. Neurobiology of Aging (2009) 30, 1587-1600
Schoenenberger, A. et al. Thiamine supplementation in symptomatic chronic heart failure: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study. Clin Res Cardiol (2012) 101:159-164


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